NOTES TO THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1. Company overview
Wipro Limited (Wipro or the Company), is a leading India based provider of IT Services, including Business Process Services (BPS) services, globally and IT Products.
Wipro is a public limited company incorporated and domiciled in India. The address of its registered office is Wipro Limited, Doddakannelli, Sarjapur Road, Bangalore—560 035, Karnataka, India. Wipro has its primary listing with Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange in India. The Company's American Depository Shares rebrsenting equity shares are also listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
2. Significant accounting policies
i. Basis of brparation of standalone financial statements
The standalone financial statements are brpared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India (GAAP) under the historical cost convention on the accrual basis, except for certain financial instruments which are measured on a fair value basis. GAAP comprises mandatory accounting standards as brscribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ('Act') read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, and the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the 2013 Act") / Companies Act, 1956 ("the 1956 Act"), as applicable, Accounting Standards ('AS')/guidance notes issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) and other generally accepted accounting principles in India.
All amounts included in the financial statements are reported in millions of Indian rupees (t in millions) except share and per share data, unless otherwise stated. Due to rounding off, the numbers brsented throughout the document may not add up brcisely to the totals and percentages may not brcisely reflect the absolute figures.
ii. Use of estimates
The brparation of financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of financial statements and reported amounts of income and expenses during the year. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revision to accounting estimates is recognised in the year in which the estimates are revised and in any future year affected.
The goodwill arising on acquisition of a group of assets is not amortised and is tested for impairment if indicators of impairment exist.
Tangible assets are stated at historical cost less accumulated debrciation and impairment loss, if any. Costs include expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the construction or production of qualifying assets are capitalized as part of the cost.
When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment. Subsequent expenditure relating to property, plant and equipment is capitalized only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.
Intangible assets are stated at the consideration paid for acquisition less accumulated amortization and impairment loss, if any.
Cost of fixed assets not ready for use before the balance sheet date is disclosed as capital work-in-progress. Advances paid towards the acquisition of fixed assets outstanding as of each balance sheet date is disclosed under long term loans and advances.
Non-current investments are stated at cost less other than temporary diminution in the value of such investments, if any. Current investments are valued at lower of cost and fair value determined by category of investment. The fair value is determined using quoted market price/market observable information adjusted for cost of disposal. On disposal of the investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.
Inventories are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value, including necessary provision for obsolescence. Cost is determined using the weighted average method. Cost of work-in-progress and finished goods include material cost and appropriate share of manufacturing overheads. Cost of inventories comprises all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their brsent location and condition.
vii. Provisions and contingent liabilities
Provisions are recognised when the Company has a brsent obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of obligation.
A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a brsent obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is a possible obligation or a brsent obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.
Provision for onerous contracts is recognized when the expected benefits to be derived from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting the future obligations under the contract.
viii. Revenue recognition
The Company derives revenue primarily from software development, maintenance of software/hardware and related services, business process services, sale of IT and other products.
The Company recognizes revenue when the significant terms of the arrangement are enforceable, services have been delivered and collectability is reasonably assured. The method of recognizing the revenues and costs depends on the nature of the services rendered:
A. Time and material contracts
Revenues and costs relating to time and material contracts are recognized as the related services are rendered.
B. Fixed-price contracts
Revenues from fixed-price contracts, including systems development and integration contracts are recognized using the"percentage-of-completion"method. Percentage of completion is determined based on project costs incurred to date as a percentage of total estimated project costs required to complete the project. The cost expended (or input) method has been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. If the Company does not have a sufficient basis to measure the progress of completion or to estimate the total contract revenues and costs, revenue is recognized only to the extent of contract cost incurred for which recoverability is probable. When total cost estimates exceed revenues in an arrangement, the estimated losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates.
'Unbilled revenues' included in other current asset rebrsent cost and earnings in excess of billings as at the end of the reporting period. 'Unearned revenues' included in other current liabilities rebrsent billing in excess of revenue recognized. Advance payments received from customers for which no services have been rendered are brsented as 'Advances from customers'.
C. Maintenance contracts
Revenue from maintenance contracts is recognized ratably over the period of the contract using the percentage of completion method. When services are performed through an indefinite number of repetitive acts over a specified period of time, revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the specified period unless some other method better rebrsents the stage of completion.
In certain projects, a fixed quantum of service or output units is agreed at a fixed price for a fixed term. In such contracts, revenue is recognized with respect to the actual output achieved till date as a percentage of total contractual output. Any residual service unutilized by the customer is recognized as revenue on completion of the term.
• The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers by reducing the amount of revenue recognized at the time of sale.
• Revenues are shown net of sales tax, value added tax, service tax and applicable discounts and allowances. Revenue includes excise duty.
• The Compa ny accrues the esti mated cost of wa rra nties at the time when the revenue is recognized. The accruals are based on the Company's historical experience of material usage and service delivery costs.
• Costs that relate directly to a contract and incurred in securing a contract are recognized as an asset and amortised over the contract term.
• Contract expenses are recognised as expenses by reference to the stage of completion of contract activity at the end of the reporting period.
Revenue from products are recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, continuing managerial involvement usually associated with ownership and effective control have ceased, the amount of revenue can be measured reliably, it is probable that economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the Company and the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.
Agency commission is accrued when shipment of consignment is dispatched by the principal.
Interest is recognized using the time-proportion method, based on rates implicit in the transaction.
Dividend income is recognized when the Company's right to receive dividend is established.
a) Arrangements where the Company is the lessee
Leases of assets, where the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalized at the lower of the fair value of the leased assets at inception and the brsent value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between the finance charge and the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to periods during the lease term at a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Leases where the lessor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Lease rentals in respect of assets taken under operating leases are charged to profit and loss account on a straight line basis over the lease term.
b) Arrangements where the Company is the lessor
In certain arrangements, the Company recognizes revenue from the sale of products given under finance leases. The Company records gross finance receivables, unearned interest income and the estimated residual value of the leased equipment on consummation of such leases. Unearned interest income rebrsents the excess of the gross finance lease receivable plus the estimated residual value over the sales price of the equipment. The Company recognizes unearned interest income as financing revenue over the lease term using the effective interest method.
x. Foreign currency transactions
The Company is exposed to currency fluctuations on foreign currency transactions. Foreign currency transactions are accounted in the books of account at the exchange rates brvailing on the date of transaction.
The difference between the rate at which foreign currency transactions are accounted and the rate at which they are realized is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Monetary foreign currency assets and liabilities at period-end are translated at the exchange rate brvailing at the date of Balance Sheet. The difference arising from the translation is recognised in the statement of profit and loss, except for the exchange difference arising on monetary items that qualify as hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge or hedge of a net investment in a non-integral foreign operation. In such cases the exchange difference is initially recognised in hedging reserve or Foreign Currency Translation Reserve (FCTR), respectively. Such exchange differences are subsequently recognised in the statement of profit and loss on occurrence of the underlying hedged transaction or on disposal of the investment, respectively. Further, foreign currency differences arising from translation of intercompany receivables or payables relating to foreign operations, the settlement of which is neither planned nor likely in the foreseeable future, are considered to form part of net investment in foreign operation and are recognized in FCTR. When a foreign operation is disposed of, the relevant amount recognized in FCTR is transferred to the statement of profit and loss as part of the profit or loss on disposal.
xi. Financial Instruments
Financial instruments are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Derivative instruments and Hedge accounting:
The Company is exposed to foreign currency fluctuations on foreign currency assets, liabilities, net investment in a non-integral foreign operation and forecasted cash flows denominated in foreign currency. The Company limits the effects of foreign exchange rate fluctuations by following established risk management policies including the use of derivatives. The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, where the counterparty is primarily a bank.
Premium or discount on foreign exchange forward contracts taken to hedge foreign currency risk of an existing asset / liability is recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the contract. Exchange differences on such contracts are recognised in the statement of profit and loss of the reporting period in which the exchange rates change.
The Company has adopted the principles of Accounting Standard 30, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement (AS 30) issued by the ICAI to the extent the adoption of AS 30 does not conflict with existing accounting standards brscribed by Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and other authoritative pronouncements.
In accordance with the recognition and measurement principles set out in AS 30, changes in fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges are recognised directly in Reserves and surplus and reclassified into the statement of profit and loss upon the occurrence of the hedged transaction.
The Company designates derivative financial instruments as hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Changes in the fair value of the derivative hedging instruments and gains/losses on translation or settlement of foreign currency denominated borrowings designated as a hedge of net investment in foreign operations are recognized in Reserves and Surplus to the extent that the hedge is effective. To the extent that the hedge is ineffective, changes in fair value are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.
Changes in the fair value relating to the ineffective portion of the hedges and derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.
The fair value of derivative financial instruments is determined based on observable market inputs including currency spot and forward rates, yield curves, currency volatility etc.
xii. Debrciation and amortisation
The Company has provided for debrciation using straight line method over the useful life ofthe assets as brscribed under part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 except in the case of following assets which are debrciated based on useful lives estimated by the Management
The Company assesses at each period end whether there is any objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the amount of impairment loss. The amount of loss for receivables is measured as the difference between the assets carrying amount and undiscounted amount of future cash flows. Impairment loss, if any, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is any indication that a brviously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recognised impairment loss is reversed, subject to maximum of initial carrying amount of the short-term receivable.
Other than financial assets:
The Company assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset including goodwill may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. If such recoverable amount of the asset or the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit to which the asset belongs to is less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount. The reduction is treated as an impairment loss and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. If at the balance sheet date there is an indication that a brviously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount subject to a maximum of debrciated historical cost. In respect of goodwill, the impairment loss will be reversed only when it was caused by specific external events of an exceptional nature that is not expected to recur and their effects have been reversed by subsequent external events.
xiv. Employee benefits
Employees receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. The employer and employees each make periodic contributions to the plan. A portion of the contribution is made to the approved provident fund trust managed by the Company while the remainder of the contribution is made to the government administered pension fund. The contributions to the trust managed by the Company is accounted for as a defined benefit plan as the Company is liable for any shortfall in the fund assets based on the government specified minimum rates of return.
The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences. The employees can carry forward a portion of the unutilized accumulating compensated absences and utilize it in future periods or receive cash at retirement or termination of employment. The Company records an obligation for compensated absences in the period in which the employee renders the services that increases this entitlement. The Company measures the expected cost of compensated absences as the additional amount that the Company expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the end of the reporting period. The Company recognizes accumulated compensated absences based on actuarial valuation carried out by independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Non-accumulating compensated absences are recognized in the period in which the absences occur. The Company recognizes actuarial gains and losses immediately in the statement of profit and loss account.
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, the Company provides for a lump sum payment to eligible employees, at retirement or termination of employment based on the last drawn salary and years of employment with the Company. The gratuity fund is managed by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), HDFC Standard Life, TATA AIG life and Birla Sun-life. The Company's obligation in respect of the gratuity plan, which is a defined benefit plan, is provided for based on actuarial valuation carried out by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. The Company recognizes actuarial gains and losses immediately in the statement of profit and loss.
Superannuation plan, a defined contribution scheme, is administered by the LIC and ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Limited. The Company makes annual contributions based on a specified percentage of each covered employee's salary.
Termination benefits are expensed when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits.
Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are recorded as expense as the related service is provided. A liability is recognized for the amount expected to be paid under short-term cash bonus or profit-sharing plans, if the Company has a brsent legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
xv. Employee stock options
The Company determines the compensation cost based on the intrinsic value method. The compensation cost is amortised on a straight line basis over the vesting period.
xvi. Taxes Income tax:
The current charge for income taxes is calculated in accordance with the relevant tax regulations. Tax liability for domestic taxes was computed under Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT). MAT credit are being recognized if there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal tax after the tax holiday period and the resultant asset can be measured reliably. The excess tax paid under MAT provisions being over and above regular tax liability can be carried forward for a period of ten years from the year of recognition and is available for set off against future tax liabilities computed under regular tax provisions, to the extent of MAT liability.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for the future tax consequences attributable to timing differences that result between the profit offered for income taxes a nd the profit as per the financial statements of each entity in the group of the Company.
Deferred taxes are recognised in respect of timing differences which originate during the tax holiday period but reverse after the tax holiday period. For this purpose, reversal of timing difference is determined using first in first out method.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognised in the period that includes the enactment/substantive enactment date.
Deferred tax assets on timing differences are recognised only if there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. However, deferred tax assets on the timing differences when unabsorbed debrciation and losses carried forward exist, are recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized.
Deferred tax assets are reassessed for the appropriateness of their respective carrying amounts at each balance sheet date.
The Company offsets, on a year on year basis, the current and non-current tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.
xvii. Earnings per share Basic:
The number of equity shares used in computing basic earnings per share is the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year excluding equity shares held by controlled trusts.
The number of equity shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.
Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted proportionately during the period, unless issued at a later date. The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted for any stock splits and bonus shares issued.
xviii. Cash flow statement
Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby net profits before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments. The cash flows from regular revenue generating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.
The Company's Indian operations have been established as units in Special Economic Zone and Software Technology Park Unit under plans formulated by the Government of India. As per the plan, the Company's India operations have export obligations to the extent of net positive foreign exchange (i.e. foreign exchange inflow - foreign exchange outflow should be positive) over a five year period. The consequence of not meeting this commitment in the future would be a retroactive levy of import duties on certain hardware brviously imported duty free. As at March 31, 2016, the Company believes that it has met all the commitments substantially required under the plan.
The Company is subject to legal proceedings and claims (including tax assessment orders/ penalty notices) which have arisen in the ordinary course of its business. Some of the claims involve complex issues and it is not possible to make a reasonable estimate of the expected financial effect, if any, that will result from ultimate resolution of such proceedings. However, the resolution of these legal proceedings is not likely to have a material and adverse effect on the results of operations or the financial position of the Company. The significant of such matters are discussed below.
In March 2004, the Company received a tax demand for year ended March 31, 2001 arising primarily on account of denial of deduction under section 10A of the Income Tax Act, 1961 (Act) in respect of profit earned by the Company's undertaking in Software Technology Park at Bangalore. The same issue was repeated in the successive assessments for the years ended March 31, 2002 to March 31, 2011 and the aggregate demand is Rs. 47,583 (including interest of Rs. 13,832). The appeals filed against the said demand before the Appellate authorities have been allowed in favor of the Company by the second appellate authority for the years up to March 31, 2007. Further appeals have been filed by the Income tax authorities before the Hon'ble High Court. The Hon'ble High Court has heard and disposed-off majority of the issues in favor of the Company up to years ended March 31, 2004.
On similar issues for years up to March 31, 2000, the Hon'ble High Court of Karnataka has upheld the claim of the Company under section 10A of the Act. For the years ended March 31, 2008 and March 31, 2009, the appeals are pending before Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (Tribunal). For years ended March 31, 2010 and March 31, 2011, the Dispute Resolution Panel (DRP) allowed the claim of the Company under section 10A of the Act. The Income tax authorities have filed an appeal before the Tribunal.
For year ended March 31, 2012, the Company received the draft assessment order in March 2016 with a proposed demand of Rs. 4,241 (including interest of Rs. 1,376), arising primarily on account of section 10AA issues with respect to exclusion from Export Turnover. Company has filed an objection before DRP within the brscribed timelines.
Considering the facts and nature of disallowance and the order of the appellate authority / Hon'ble High Court of Karnataka upholding the claims of the Company for earlier years, the Company believes that the final outcome of the above disputes should be in favor of the Company and there should not be any material adverse impact on the financial statements.
Adoption of AS 30
The Company has applied the principles of AS 30, Financial Instruments: Recognition and measurement, as per announcement by the ICAI to the extent such principles of AS 30 does not conflict with existing accounting standards brscribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act,
2013 ('Act') read with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014, the provisions of Companies Act, 2013 (to the extent notified and applicable) and other authoritative pronouncements.
The Company has derivative contracts designated as capital hedges amounting to Nil (March 31, 2015: USD 145 Million) and has also designated a dollar-denominated foreign currency borrowing amounting to USD 150 Million (March 31, 2015: USD 150 Million) as a hedging instrument to hedge net investment in non-integral foreign operations. As equity investments in non-Integral foreign subsidiaries / operations are stated at historical cost, in these standalone financial statements, the changes in fair value of derivative contracts and impact of restatement of foreign currency borrowing amounting to (loss) / gain of t (523) for the year ended March 31, 2016 has been recorded in the statement of profit and loss. (2015: t 390).
As at March 31, 2016 the Company has recognised gain of t 2,369 million (March 31, 2015: t 4,270 million) relating to derivative financial instruments (comprising foreign currency forward contract, option contracts and interest rate swap) that are designated as effective cash flow hedges in the shareholders' fund.
2. Employee benefit plans
In accordance with the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, applicable for Indian companies, the Company provides for a lump sum payment to eligible employees, at retirement or termination of employment based on the last drawn salary and years of employment with the Company. The gratuity fund is managed by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), HDFC Standard Life, TATA AIG and Birla Sun-life. The Company's obligation in respect of the gratuity plan, which is a defined benefit plan, is provided for based on actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. The Company recognizes actuarial gains and losses immediately in other combrhensive income, net of taxes.
3. Employee stock option
i) Employees covered under Stock Option Plans and Restricted Stock Unit (RSU) Option Plans (collectively "stock option plans") are granted an option to purchase shares of the Company at the respective exercise prices, subject to requirements of vesting conditions. These options generally vests in tranches over a period of 3 to 5 years from the date of grant. Upon vesting, the employees can acquire one equity share for every option. The maximum contractual term for these stock option plans is generally 7 years.
ii) The stock compensation cost is computed under the intrinsic value method and amortised on a straight line basis over the total vesting period of five years. The intrinsic value on the date of grant approximates the fair value. For the year ended March 31, 2016, the Company has recorded stock compensation expense of t1,601 (2015: t 1,296).
iii) The compensation committee of the board evaluates the performance and other criteria of employees and approves the grant of options. These options vest with employees over a specified period subject to fulfillment of certain conditions. Upon vesting, employees are eligible to apply and secure allotment of Company's shares at a price determined on the date of grant of options. The particulars of options granted under various plans are tabulated below. (The number of shares in the table below is adjusted for any stock splits and bonus shares issues).
Provision for warranty rebrsent cost associated with providing sales support services which are accrued at the time of recognition of revenues and are expected to be utilized over a period of 1 to 2 years from the balance sheet date. Other provisions primarily include provisions for tax related contingencies and litigations
5. Income Tax
The provision for taxation includes tax liability in India on the Company's worldwide income. The tax has been computed on the worldwide income as reduced by the various deductions and exemptions provided by the Income tax Act in India (Act) and the tax credit in India for the tax liabilities payable in foreign countries
Most of the Company's operations are through units in Special Economic Zone and Software Technology Parks ('STPs'). Income from STPs is not eligible for deduction from April 01, 2011. Income from SEZ's are eligible for 100%
deduction for the first 5 years, 50% deduction for the next 5 years and 50% deduction for another 5 years subject to fulfilling certain conditions.
The Company was calculating its tax liability after considering the provisions of law relating to Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) upto March 2015. As per the Act, any excess of MAT paid over the normal tax payable can be carried forward and set off against the future tax liabilities. Accordingly an amount of Rs. 1,490 is included under 'Long term loans and advances' in the balance sheet as at March 31, 2016 (March 31, 2015:Rs. 1,838)
As per our report of even date attached
for BSR & Co. LLP
Firm's Registration No.: 101248W/W-100022
Membership No.: 046476
For and on behalf of the Board of Directors
M K Sharma
Azim H Premji
Chairman & Managing Director
T K Kurien
Executive Vice Chairman
Jatin Pravinchandra Dalal
Chief Financial Officer
M Sanaulla Khan
PLACE : Bangalore
DATE : June 3, 2016